History of the country of Austria briefly: from the Celts to the Republic
In very ancient times, Austria was a desert territory, as the climate was colder. At a time when civilizations arose in Egypt, China and Mesopotamia, Austria lay in the snow.
Celtic tribes inhabited these lands, but were not very numerous, since it was difficult to get food in harsh conditions. But, it is not necessary to perceive them as absolutely wild people from the Stone Age, they were quite civilized, they knew how to create bronze and iron tools, ceramic utensils and conducted agriculture.
The civilized history of these lands begins with the conquest of the territory of modern Austria by the Romans in 15 BC (see an article on the history of the Roman Republic ). The province, which consisted of Austrian lands, was called Noricum.
Despite the poor soil, the province was rich, as it turned out to be very rich in mineral resources. Here they extracted salt, gold and iron. It was very important for the Romans, but they could not control it for a long time. Several centuries Norikum maintained autonomy, and most of the management issues were handled by local leaders. Celts gradually adopted the culture of the Romans, and the two peoples approached.
The Romans did a lot for the territory of modern Austria, they built trade posts and military settlements, then turned into cities. But, the province has never played an important role and was perceived by the Romans as a resource colony.
If you recall the mention of Austrian lands in the culture of that time, you can remember that perhaps St. Florian, a Roman officer who secretly converted to Christianity, and was brutally murdered for it. This happened during the persecution of Christians around 250 AD. Now he is one of the most revered saints in Austria.
He is the main patron of firefighters, and is often portrayed as pouring water onto a fire.
On the left you see the most famous image of the holy brush of the famous Italian painter Francesco del Cossa.
Perhaps, Saint Florian is the main symbol of Austria of the Roman period of its history and a very revered saint for the Austrians.
In the 4th century, an event began that changed Europe forever. It was called "the great migration of peoples" and lasted more than 300 years. All the tribes of Europe began to migrate from north to south and east to west.
The Western Roman Empire could not stand it, and it was destroyed, and in Austria its changes took place. The mixed population of these lands superseded the Bavarian and Slavic tribes, and the Slavs were in vassal submission to the Avar people.
The next 300 plus years can be considered dark in the history of Austria, different peoples divided it among themselves. Different parts of the country were conquered by some states, then others, we will not even enumerate them all. Let's note only that the whole territory of modern Austria was able to win Karl the Great, the King of the Franks (pictured above). During this period, the entire population converted to Christianity.
The Frankish Empire, which Charles the Great founded, was transformed into the Holy Roman Empire, and Austria became an integral part of it. The crown of the empire is still kept in the treasury in Vienna . It should be noted that this empire has a very vague relation to Rome. Of course, the emperor was crowned by the pope himself in Rome, and part of Italy belonged to the empire, but in fact it was the German state.
In 1273 there was a fateful event in the history of Austria, the "big political stage" came Habsburgs. It was in this year that Rudolf I (pictured right) from the Habsburg family became King of Germany.
Rudolf I was a very active monarch, he defeated the Czech army and annexed all their lands west of the Czech Republic. Now the entire territory of modern Austria has become part of the Holy Roman Empire. Habsburgs owned many lands, but it was the Austrian territories that made for themselves the main hereditary land.
Austria eventually becomes the capital of the Holy Roman Empire and the center of all German lands, and in 1438 the Habsburg Albrecht V became the emperor and acquired the full right to rule the entire German nation.
It is at this point that the Austrians meet a strong enemy. The Turks at that time formed the Ottoman Empire, and waged active wars of conquest. They captured almost the entire Balkan Peninsula, and only Austria stood in their way. In addition to the Austrians, the Turks resisted the Knights Hospitallers in the citadel on the island of Rhodes , but in 1532 the fortress fell.
The war with the Turks continued for another 300 years and was conducted with varying success, the Turkish army even several times stood near Vienna, but each time it was thrown back. Habsburgs meanwhile became one of the most influential monarchs in Europe, under their authority passed Spain, the Netherlands and part of Italy. Of course, Spain was not part of Austria, just for a while they had the same king.
In the ongoing wars with the Ottoman Empire, Prussia and France, the Austrians held the following era in their history. In 1806, one of the Habsburgs Franz II renounced the title of emperor, and the Holy Roman Empire is a thing of the past. Franz II himself proclaimed himself Austrian emperor. The crown of the Austrian Empire is also kept in the treasury in Vienna .
Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799 proclaimed himself emperor of France and the Austrians at first were his irreconcilable enemies.
In 1805, the famous battle of Austerlitz took place, which was also called the "battle of the three emperors." The Allied army of Austria and Russia suffered a crushing defeat from the French. Emperors Franz II and Alexander I fled the battlefield, Field Marshal Kutuzov was wounded.
However, Mikhail Illarionovich still had a chance to be rehabilitated, when Austrian generals did not tell him, and the revenge was taken at Borodino.
Austria was forced to conclude a peace with Napoleon with the loss of a large number of territories. Later, in 1811, the Austrian-French military alliance was concluded and officially Austria entered the war with Russia on the side of Napoleon.
The Austrians in the Patriotic War of 1812 participated in a corps of 30,000 men under the command of General Schwarzenberg. He showed himself a master of imitation of rough activity.
After the defeat of Napoleon in Russia in 1812, his defeats continued. In 1814, they lost all territories, except for France itself, and the united army took Paris, and Bonaparte went to exile to the island of Elba.
It was in Vienna that a congress of representatives of European countries was held, where new borders on the continent were discussed. This collection went down in history as the "Vienna Congress," and according to its results, Austria returned all the lost land. The Austrian empire again became big and strong.
We were too carried away by wars and forgot about one important event that happened in January 1756. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg. This is a man-symbol of Austria, which is depicted on a national coin of 1 euro , and candy and liqueur of his name are the most popular gifts from the alpine country .
One of the most brilliant composers and performers of his time lived in Austria, first in Salzburg, and then in Vienna. A great musician died at the age of 36 from illness, and all the legends about the poisoning of his Salieri have no evidence.
The next historical event occurred in 1848, when the real bourgeois revolution began here. The Austrian empire was not homogeneous, many areas had broad autonomies, parts of the empire began to accept their constitutions, and the country was close to collapse.
The situation was saved by Emperor Franz Joseph I, who with the help of Russia suppressed uprisings in Hungary, and using cunning political moves, transformed the Austrian empire into a centralized state. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was very peculiar, the emperor was the sole ruler, but both parts of the empire had their parliaments and even budgets. The Empire was an absolute record for the number of officials, which led to discontent among the population.
Kaiser Franz, the emperor Franz Joseph I was perhaps the most famous ruler of Austria. His reign lasted for 68 years. He became the first Austro-Hungarian emperor. The second and last became his great-uncle, Charles I.
Unfortunately, this period of history can not be called successful, the war with Prussia was lost in 1866, and Austria finally lost hope for the status of leader of the German peoples.
The city of Vienna at the time, on the contrary, experienced a cultural dawn. It was during this period that the most interesting buildings appeared here: the new town hall , the Votivkirche church , the building of the opera and the university.
In 1914, in the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia, the Serbian student Danilo Princip withdrew from the pistol the heir to the Austrian throne, Franz Ferdinand. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and the First World War began. The peoples of the empire did not enjoy the joy of war. Czechs, Hungarians and Croats did not want to fight and die for Austria and willingly surrendered to prison. This situation is especially interesting in Yaroslav Hasek's novel The Adventures of the Brave Soldier Schweik.
As a result of the great war (namely, the so-called First World War before the Second World War), the Austro-Hungarian Empire ceased to exist, Kaiser Franz himself died in 1916, he did not see the demise of his empire.
In 1919, the Austrian Republic was formed, the struggle for power in which lasted until 1938, when the German troops entered Vienna, and the country became part of the Third Reich. This process was called "Anschluss". About these "dark" times now resembles a memorial to the victims of fascism in Vienna in the square of Helmut Zilka .
At that moment another famous Austrian scientist, Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, lived and worked in Vienna. Probably, it does not need to be imagined, we think you know it.
In 1938 he had to leave Austria, although he was already sick, he was 83 years old. A year after immigration, he died.
Freud managed to leave the country for a big rent, immediately after the Anschluss Jews were limited to leaving the country. The Catholic Church was also subjected to active persecution by the Nazis, but Austria's accession to the Third Reich was approved by the majority of the country's citizens.
Another famous Austrian who suffered from repression, would be the architect Fredrik Hundertwasser , who was still a teenager at the time.
Austria throughout the war worked for the benefit of Hitler's Germany, its citizens served in the German army, and the industry produced tanks, rifles and cartridges for the army. Of course, the Austrians did not try very hard, but they worked until the very end of the war.
The war ended for the country in April 1945, when the Soviet troops took Vienna. Until 1955, the Allied forces were still on Austrian territory, and on May 15 the "Declaration of Austrian Independence" was proclaimed.
Austria has become a democratic country, as you can see it now. More information about the country you can read in our other articles on chinainfoguide.info ( links below ).
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