The second part of the composition
This part of the composition consists of two parts. The front marble sculpture symbolizes the fighters for freedom and humanism, and a large stone symbolizes the formation of the new Republic of Austria.
A courageous figure symbolizes fighters against Nazism.
The opposition to the Nazis existed in Austria. It was not armed, as in neighboring Yugoslavia. The Austrian anti-Nazis did not hide in the woods, but tried with a word and persuasion to achieve resistance to Hitler. Most of them were eventually arrested and killed in the same concentration camps.
Among them, the famous group "Red Chapel" and even German intelligence chief Admiral Wilhelm Franz Canaris. Very famous was Count Klaus von Stauffenberg, who made an unsuccessful attempt on Hitler. He was glorified in many ways by the Hollywood film "Operation Valkyrie", where his role was played by Tom Cruise.
From the Austrians it is possible to note the theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer, whom the Nazis stripped naked and hung on April 9, 1945.
Further from the statue to fighters against fascism is the "stone of the republic." It is carved a new declaration of independence of Austria and the names of those people who participated in the proclamation of the new Austrian state.
To many tourists the history of the formation of the modern republic of Austria seems simple and uninteresting, and the merits of Karl Renner (the first president of the new Austria) are insignificant. But this is not so.
In April 1945, Austria was in a difficult situation. Part of the country, including the capital of Vienna, was controlled by Soviet troops.
Stalin saw in Austria a new communist republic, and many Western politicians made plans to join this country to Bavaria or the creation of a separate state "Danube Federation". The independence and integrity of Austria "hung in the balance."
It was Karl Renner and his associates who signed the declaration of independence of Austria on April 27, 1945 and formed the government.
Austrian politicians wisely used the Moscow Declaration of 1943, where the representatives of the USSR, Great Britain and the United States declared the Anschluss and the independence of Austria null and void, provided the steps of the Austrians themselves in this direction.
As a result, Austria remained a free and democratic state. The Declaration of Independence of Austria was signed only in 1955 in Vienna in the Belvedere Palace .