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Interesting facts about the Great Sphinx in the Giza Valley - Part 1

The secret of the Sphinx excites the minds of mankind no less than the pyramids themselves. Although today Egyptologists are sure that the same statue of the Great Sphinx was carved during the IV dynasty, we meet with a complete lack of mention of the texts of the Old Kingdom . In this connection, serious experts continue to associate the Sphinx with Khafra and assert that "the dating of the time of the IV dynasty of the Old Kingdom is beyond doubt"?

One factor is the text carved on the wall of granite, which is built right between the paws of the monument, and was used as evidence that the Sphinx was built by Pharaoh Khafre.

Так Большой Сфинкс выглядит сейчас

Stella does not appear to be a contemporary of the Sphinx and perpetuates the heroic deeds of Pharaoh Thutmose IV (1401-1391 BC), it was he who cleared the Sphinx from the sand, in which the monument was buried for many years. The text defines the sculpture with the lion's body as the realization of the "great magical power that existed here since the beginning of the centuries". Recall that Thutmose ruled during the New Kingdom, when the Karnak Temple flourished and the pharaohs were already buried in the valley of the kings .

In this inscription in the 13th line you can find the name Khafra-Haf. The existence of this syllable, according to the statements of Sir E. A. Wallis Badge, "is extremely important, since it confirms that the priests of Heliopolis, who recommended that Tuthmosis begin the clearing of the Sphinx from the sand, were sure that it was Pharaoh Khafre who erected it ..." Does this part of the inscription Haf confirm the truth?

When the stele with the inscription was discovered by a traveler and adventurer from Genoa Janbattista Cavilia in 1817 during his expedition to Egypt , line 13, unfortunately, now she completely erased, already at that time had serious damage. Scientists know about it only because, after some time after excavations, the British scientist Thomas Young, a famous expert on deciphering the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, managed to make a copy of these inscriptions. Line 13, he translated at that time so: "... we give him: bulls ... and fresh vegetables; and he, whom we all magnify ... Haf ... a sculpture carved in honor of Atum-Abyss-Em-Aket ... "

Considering that Hough is the second name of Pharaoh Khafre, Young added to the verse the syllable square brackets to demonstrate that the gap is full. However, in 1905, the North American Egyptologist, James Henry Brahsted, who examined the copy of Young, made his judgment that such an addition was erroneous: "This mention of Pharaoh Hafra was understood as evidence that the Sphinx was built by the order of this ruler - a conclusion that is groundless; in the copy of Yang there is no indication of a cartouche ... "

Пример надписи имени фоараона с картушем

In all the texts of Ancient Egypt, from the foundation and down to the decline of the culture of the pharaohs, the names of the overlords were constantly placed in rounded signs - cartouches. As a consequence, it is highly unlikely that on the granite slab near the paws of the Great Sphinx, the name of such a prominent ruler as Pharaoh Khafre - as well as any other sovereign of Egypt - could be inscribed without the cartouche required by tradition.

If the syllable Haf would indicate an appeal to Hafr, this does not lead us to the fact that he can take on the glory of the builder of the Sphinx. After all, it is possible that he was mentioned in the text for any other glorious deeds. For example, he could be, similarly to the numerous subsequent pharaohs ( Ramses II , Thutmose IV, Ahmos I, and so on), and maybe some predecessors on the Egyptian throne, to be a restorer of the statue of the Sphinx?

At first glance, it seems that burying in the sand such a giant monument as the Sphinx, the task is not simple. But after visiting Cairo you will be convinced of the opposite. The Sphinx is in the lowland (it is now difficult to make assumptions about how it was formed) at the base of the hill with the Egyptian pyramids and if it is covered with sand, then nothing else except the head will be visible. It should be taken into account that the plain near the city of Giza is a rocky site, and in no case is the desert sand, as most ordinary people think (better try to imagine a large construction site with a newly poured foundation or quarry for the extraction of a building stone). Thus, in order to completely fill the monument with sand, it takes quite a long time, not one decade.

Голова статуи одного из фараонов

Sphinx several times completely immersed in the sand, and dug back - this can be read on the plate, erected here by Pharaoh Thutmose at the feet of the Great Sphinx. One day, when he was still one of the pretenders to the throne, Thutmose went hunting near the pyramids. He was tired in the midday heat and fell asleep in the pleasant shadow of the monolith. During sleep he met with the god Harmakhis, whom the statue of the Sphinx probably depicts.

God ordered Thutmose to unearth the trunk of the monument, covered with sands. For this service, God promised Thutmose both crowns of Egypt - that is, to make him the lord of Lower and Upper Egypt. Perhaps, Thutmose had serious doubts about his rights to the future throne, and he swore to God that he would fulfill his will in exchange for the successful succession of the throne of the country. The system of succession in ancient Egypt was complex, Thutmose, although it was the first son, could not get the throne. Remember at least his grandmother, who was almost a full-fledged pharaoh, the temple of Queen Hatshepsut and now recalls her and is popular with tourists.

Immediately after Thutmose IV clothed the crown of the pharaoh, he began to fulfill this sacred promise. Sculpture of the Great Sphinx was dug up. In the sand, workers found several parts of the head of the statue, lost earlier. They were on the ground, completely covered with sand, right between the two forepaws of the Sphinx. Perhaps the head of the statue of the Sphinx in order to simplify the restoration work was sawn into several smaller parts and installed back in parts. It is quite possible to assume that other parts of the Sphinx's head: the pharaoh's crown, the snake's head and the sacred beard - were restored at the same time.

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