The pyramid of Djoser is unique - this is the first pyramid in Egypt
Prior to the pyramid of Djoser, the Egyptians built "mastabas" - these are low rectangular funerary structures. Joser first put a few mastabs on top of each other and got a pyramidal shape.
The shape of the pyramid is symbolic - it is a "ladder to heaven", by which the soul of the deceased can rise up to meet with Osiris and other gods.
It was the tomb of Djoser that gave the example to the succeeding rulers and became the prototype of all the Egyptian pyramids.
The stepped surface was replaced by a smooth one in the later tombs of the pharaohs. The pyramid of Djoser remained the only stepped in all of Egypt. Pharaohs after Djoser began to build such stepped pyramids, but they all did not last long and did not have time to finish their tombs. The first who managed to do this was the pharaoh of the 4th dynasty, Snofru, and his Lomanaya and the Pink Pyramids were already smooth.
Another innovation was the location of this royal tomb. All the rulers of the 1st and 2nd dynasties were buried in the city of Abydos. Joser broke this tradition for the first time and founded the funeral complex of Sakkara in the south of the capital of ancient Egypt - Memphis.
Unique - the first monumental building in Egypt made of stone
Prior to Joser, all mastabas were built from raw bricks. This is not the best building material, and it is not surprising that all these mastabs are now in a sorry state or not preserved at all.
Josser was the first to use stone. Limestone blocks were mined near Saqqara and processed on site. The blocks for the inner part of the pyramid were treated roughly, the voids between them were filled with construction debris and clay. Blocks that come out face-to-face are processed carefully.
Some guides say that this is the first large stone structure in the world, but this is not so. The first stone monumental building was recognized by Barnenes in France, which is 6.5 thousand years old.
Unique - we know the architect
The architects of the Egyptian pyramids are unknown, their names have not preserved the history. But the tomb of Djoser is an exception. It was built by the chief minister of Djoser, his name was Imhotep. Surprisingly, he was more famous than Pharaoh Joser himself. Thanks to the trilogy of the movies "Mummy", he became one of the most famous Egyptians .
Imhotep was a universal scientist, however, at that time in ancient Egypt there were no scientific specialties in general. All educated people engaged in all kinds of knowledge at the same time.
Imhotep was awarded a great honor - his name is written on the statues of the pharaoh and is often found in the funerary complex. However, his tomb is still not found. Perhaps, we still have a grand archaeological discovery in the future.
Imhotep was deified after death, and he was worshiped as the god of medicine. In his temples, the sick gathered in the hope of miraculous healing. The cult of Imhotep survived until the era of the Roman Empire. A statuette from the Louvre (Paris) in the photo on the left from a later era. It does not claim the accuracy of Imhotep's image, it is rather a cult thing.
Unique - the course of construction
The pyramid of Djoser was built in 4 stages - this is a record for such structures. These stages can be seen with the naked eye even now. In different places of the building there are a few different masonry, different safety of the structural elements, the configuration of underground tunnels and chambers precisely points to these stages.
At first, for Joser's pharaoh, a mastab was built, but not of brick, but of stone. Apparently, he did not like his size. At the second stage, the mastaba was enlarged in width and length.
In the third stage, three more mastabas were built on top, and the first version of the pyramid with 4 tiers turned out.
Probably, the size again did not satisfy the pharaoh, and it was completed - increased in length and width and built up 2 more tiers on top. You can see the result now if you go on an excursion to this landmark.
It was the construction of the stone that allowed Joser and Imhotep to build the tiers from above. The construction of brick simply could not stand it. Apparently, they did not immediately understand the huge potential of stone structures, awareness came to them gradually. Hence the four stages of construction.