What country of the UAE
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The United Arab Emirates (United Arab Emirates) is a small country in the Persian Gulf, but very interesting, famous and popular with Russians. Someone associates the UAE with mosques and minarets, someone with beaches, someone with shopping centers and fashionable shops.
In this article I will tell you in detail where the Arab Emirates are, who lives here, what these people do and who governs the country.
The United Arab Emirates are in the Middle East, in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula, on the shore of the Persian Gulf.
See the map on the right, click on the map to enlarge, the UAE is surrounded by a red oval. We cut out a piece of the map in such a way that other popular tourist countries could be seen: Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Bulgaria. In the north, even the territory of Russia fell into our piece of the map.
The neighbors of the Arab Emirates: from the east of Oman, from the south and the west of Saudi Arabia, to the north across the bay is Iran.
The country's area is 83,600 sq. Km, which is comparable to the size of Austria, the Czech Republic, Azerbaijan or Serbia. Most of this area is occupied by the Arabian desert. Only 5% of the territory is suitable for human life and only 1.2% is suitable for agriculture.
The population of the UAE as of 2017 is about 10 million people, which is comparable to the Czech Republic, Sweden, Greece or Belarus. The composition of the population is very interesting, but we'll talk about this in more detail later.
The federal state of the United Arab Emirates consists of 7 emirates. About each emirate we have a detailed article on the site, read articles: Abu Dhabi , Dubai , Sharjah , Ras Al Khaimah , Fujairah , Umm al-Quwain and Ajman .
For the mutual location of the emirates, see the map below, click on the map to enlarge.
The largest emirate of Abu Dhabi, the area - 67,340 square kilometers, which is 80.5% of the territory of all UAE. Dubai is on the second place, the area is 3,880 square kilometers, which is 17 times less than Abu Dhabi. The smallest is Ajman with an area of only 259 square kilometers.
The most populous emirate is Dubai, the population is about 3 million people, in second place is Abu Dhabi - about 2,500,000. The smallest population is in Umm al-Quwain, only 75,000 people.
Each emirate is an absolute monarchy with the ruling emir. About them, read in detail in the article "The rulers of the emirates ." The Sheikh has full power within the framework defined by the constitution, which we will talk about later.
Climate and weather
Summer in the UAE is very hot, the temperature in the daytime in coastal cities rises to +40-42 degrees, in the Arabian desert areas to + 50-55. Water in the Persian Gulf can warm up to + 36-38, and even become dangerous for long bathing.
Winter is something like a summer in the central strip of Russia. The temperature rises to + 23-26 in the daytime.
Read more about the weather in our article " Weather in the UAE by months ."
Tourism in the UAE
Statistics of tourism in the UAE is difficult to calculate, since each emirate itself counts visitors. The tourist can, for example, fly to the airport in Dubai, and live in the hotel Abu Dhabi, in this case can be counted twice. Therefore, the tourist statistics in the UAE should be treated with caution.
In 2017, the UAE was visited by more than 19 million tourists. Of course, this is far from the world leaders - France (82 million) or Spain (72 million), and even to Turkey (30 million).
The tourism industry of the UAE is the fastest growing in the world. As early as 2016, 17 million tourists visited here, in 2015 14.2 million tourists came. Authorities of the UAE plan to reach the figure of 30 million by 2027.
Now tourism gives the country 68.6 billion dirhams a year (direct contribution to GDP), which is about 18.3 billion dollars. In Dubai's GDP, tourism takes twice as much as oil revenues. And this is only a direct contribution to GDP, that is, it does not consider buying tourists in fashion stores or hotel construction.
In the tourism industry, 317,500 people are directly employed, this is about 3% of the country's population, and this figure is growing every year.
The main tourist destination within the country is the emirate of Dubai. Of the 19 million guests in the country in 2017, 15.2 million came to Dubai.
It is more likely that in 2017 Dubai will overtake London in terms of retail sales and become the world's first "shopping mecca". Official figures for 2017 on the volume of retail trade in Dubai at the moment (note: the article was written in late 2017) is not yet.
However, in 2018, the growth rate of tourism and retail can be reduced. The fact is that now in the UAE there are no VAT and NSP taxes, which gives the minimum prices in stores. Since 2018 VAT is introduced at a rate of 5%, prices will rise. About this, we discussed in detail in the article " Shopping in the UAE ."
The UAE is actively preparing to increase the tourist flow. In Dubai, the program for 2015-2020 for the construction of new hotels with a capacity of 57,000 rooms was adopted.
In addition to shopping, tourists in the UAE are attracted by sandy beaches of the Persian Gulf and world famous sights: Burj Khalifa ; Dubai Mall ; Dubai fountains ; Yas Island with parks Mir Ferrari , Yas Watervord and Yas Mall Mall ; The Great Mosque of Sheikh Zayd ; and others.
Dubai is also known as a center for gastronomic tourism. Here live representatives of more than 200 peoples, in the city thousands of restaurants of hundreds of national cuisines of the world.
The UAE is a federation, consists of seven emirates, each has its own ruler, but its power is limited.
According to articles 120 and 121 of the Constitution of the United Arab Emirates, the following areas are in the jurisdiction of the federal government: foreign policy, defense and security, citizenship and migration issues, education, health, currency turnover - UAE dirham , communications, air traffic control and aircraft licensing.
Federal structures are also now engaged in: labor relations, regulation of the banking sector, delineation of territorial waters, extradition of criminals.
The remaining issues are resolved at the local level, that is, under the management of the emirs.
The highest persons of the state: the President and the Prime Minister. In the photo, Prime Minister Sheikh Mohammed ibn-Rashid Al-Muktum and the Presidential Executive Office Sheikh Mohammed ibn-Zayd Al-Nahyan are in the vicinity.
The main authorities: the Supreme Council, the Council of Ministers, the Federal National Council and the Federal Supreme Court.
Supreme Council (Supreme Council) is the supreme body of executive and legislative power, consists of 7 emirs.
The Supreme Council elects (or dismisses) the President and the Prime Minister of the country, ratifies all federal laws, makes the most important decisions.
The Federal Council takes its decisions by voting. The decision was made if 5 emirs, including emirs of Abu Dhabi and Dubai, voted "for". If at least 3 emirs are against, or the emir of Dubai is against, or the emir of Abu Dhabi is against, then the decision is not accepted. Very interesting form of democracy.
The Supreme Council meets four times a year or in emergency cases. In the photo below one of the meetings, click on the photo to enlarge.
Council of Ministers . After the appointment of the Prime Minister by decision of the Supreme Council, he proposes the composition of ministers to the President. If the President approves, the cabinet begins to work. The Council of Ministers solves all important current issues in the country, consists of 22 members.
The Federal National Council is the parliament of the United Arab Emirates, consists of 40 deputies: 8 from Abu Dhabi and Dubai, 6 from Sharjah and Ras Al Khaimah, 4 from Ajman, Fujairah and Umm al- Kuwain.
The Federal National Council discusses laws and amendments to the constitution, reviews the federal budget, comments on international treaties and conventions, and advises the government.
In fact, the Federal National Council does not have power, it is exclusively an advisory body. However, the emirs listen to him, because here are collected sensible, experienced and knowledgeable areas of their people.
The Federal Supreme Court is the supreme body of the judiciary. As in any modern civilized state, in the UAE the judiciary is separated from the executive.
The Federal Supreme Court consists of five judges appointed by the Supreme Council. Judges determine the constitutionality of federal laws and arbitrate disputes between emirates and disputes between the federal government and the emirates.
Such a system of governance may seem authoritarian, but it is natural for Emirates, formed as a result of the history of the country.
Another 8000 years ago on the territory of the modern UAE there was an ancient civilization - the culture of Umm al-Nar. The climate was much softer then, which allowed full-scale development of agriculture. Over time, desertification occurred, and the ancient culture faded.
Until the 12th century there were no large settlements, the area was inhabited by nomads, fishermen from the coast and a few inhabitants of oases. In 632, on the territory of the modern emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, one of the most important battles of the "War with the Departed" took place - the Battle of Daba.
Since the 12th century port cities have flourished, the emirates have participated in the developed trading network of the Indian Ocean, cultural and commodity exchange is flourishing. In the 16th century, the Portuguese entered the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf, seizing some of the ports.
In the 17th century, Portugal lost its power, the Dutch gained control over the Persian Gulf. In the 18th century, they were replaced by the English. For a long time, the emirates fall under British influence and partial control.
In 1971, the United Kingdom withdrew its naval forces from the Persian Gulf, and seven emirates are united in a single federal state - the United Arab Emirates. The author of the union and the first president was Sheikh Zayd.
Read a detailed story in our large and interesting article " History of the United Arab Emirates ".
Who lives in the UAE
Now (note: the article was written in 2017), only 10% of the population are indigenous Arabs (citizens). The rest are temporary workers from India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Iran, Egypt and other countries.
Their relationship is complex, as we wrote in detail in the article " The Population of the United Arab Emirates ."
In the UAE is a very complex legal system, but also very interesting, it is a unique fusion of Islamic and Anglo-Saxon legal traditions.
Every emirate chooses - to have its own judicial system or to join the federal one. At the moment (note: the article was written in 2017), only Dubai and Ras Al Khaimah have their judicial system.
Shariah does not have the status of law in the UAE, but the legislation of the country is largely based on Sharia law. There are Sharia courts in the country that deal with cases of divorce, custody, family disputes. Criminal and administrative cases are handled by the secular courts.
In the UAE, Islamic types of punishment are used. For example, whipping is used, several dozen people a year receive similar sentences. Stoning with stones as a form of the death penalty is legal, although it is almost not used now.
Much that we have become accustomed to in the United Arab Emirates is forbidden and punishable:
- An oral insult with sexual overtones can be punished with imprisonment or 80 lashes;
- Abortions are punishable, up to 1 year in prison and up to 10,000 dirhams fine;
- Apostasy from Islam is punishable by death;
- Homosexuality is punishable by imprisonment - up to 12 years imprisonment;
"You can go to jail for drunk driving or even drinking in a public place, as we talked about in the article" Alcohol in the UAE . "
An interesting fact is that crime in the UAE is very "young." According to statistics in 2015, about 40% of all offenses committed by minors (persons under 18 years).
About what is not recommended for tourists, we described in detail in the article " What is not allowed in the UAE ." For tourists, we recommend two more of our articles: " What can and can not be imported into the UAE " and " What can and can not be exported from the UAE ."
According to the Russians, the UAE is producing oil and is not doing anything else. This is a great misconception.
Not all seven emirates extract oil, and oil reserves are only in Abu Dhabi and Dubai. There is still a small gas field on the shelf in Umm al-Quwain, but it should not be taken seriously. See the oilfield map below, click to enlarge.
In the economy of five of the seven emirates, oil does not participate at all. The emirate of Dubai has one deposit on the shelf. As of 2017, oil accounts for only 4% of Dubai's GDP.
All oil wealth is in Abu Dhabi - under the sands of the desert and on the shelves. In the GDP of the emirate of Abu Dhabi, oil is now 60%.
In all emirates actively develop all sectors of the economy. Even agriculture is growing actively, although only dates are grown here, in detail in our article "The dates in the UAE ." The financial sector, insurance business, and services are actively developing.
In each emirate there is a "Free-Zone" - free economic zones where enterprises are exempted from duties and taxes. Every year in the UAE, thousands of manufacturing enterprises, international trade, high-tech industries are opened.
The authorities are trying "not to put all the eggs in one basket," trying to develop all areas of the economy. The Emirates make a big bet on the tourist area, which we discussed in detail at the beginning of this article. We spoke about the strengths of the UAE economy in the review " UAE and oil ".
A significant contribution to GDP is provided by transport.
The greatest successes in the UAE have been achieved in the development of air and sea transport.
The UAE is home to several major airlines: Emirates, Etihad, Air Arabia, Fly Dubai. An interesting point is that none of them is one of the ten largest in the world in terms of fleet size, but the airline Emirates is one of the world leaders in terms of the "number of passengers X done way". That is, Emirates are strong on long-distance and interchange routes.
Dubai International Airport is one of the largest aviation hubs in Europe and Asia. Now, according to passenger traffic, it is in the third place in the world, second only to the airports of Atlanta (USA) and Beijing (China). In 2016, Dubai Airport received 83,600,000 passengers.
The UAE is the largest sea trade hub, the most popular transit point between Asia and Europe. Warehouse complexes in Dubai are very popular for temporary placement of goods. In Dubai, in Jebel Ali, there is the world's largest artificial harbor. Even the aircraft carriers are moored here - the Fifth Fleet of the US Navy.
Domestic transport in the country does not lag behind. In Dubai, there is already a metro, one of four in the Arab countries. Behind the Dubai subway there is one world record - this is the largest automated (in the trains there is no machinist) metro in the world. Read our article " Dubai Metro - how to use and map in Russian ".
In addition to the subway, there are trams in Dubai, in other emirates there is only a bus service. Popular taxi, comfortable and inexpensive, read our review " Taxi in the UAE ."
Armed Forces of the United Arab Emirates
The UAE has a small army - only 65,000 people. This is not surprising, because the military service is not accepted by visiting Indians and Pakistanis, only citizens serve in the country, of which there are only about 1 million in the country.
The air force consists of about 100 tactical fighters F-16 and Mirage 2000, 2 DRLOU aircraft, about 30 aircraft-transports, 13 helicopters, and a dozen reconnaissance aircraft.
The Navy consists of 72 ships. These are patrol ships of the Coast Guard and ships for transporting marines. By the way, the Marine Corps of the United Arab Emirates is equipped with Russian BMD-3.
The land forces of the UAE Armed Forces represent a formidable force in their region. The latest French tanks Leclerc are equipped with 388 pieces (in the photo next, click to enlarge). For comparison, France itself has 406 tanks.
In addition, there are English light tanks FV101 Scorpion (76 pieces), armored cars AMX-10P and BMP-3. In the UAE army there are a lot of armored vehicles, they are one of the leaders in the world in terms of the ratio of "number of armored vehicles / number of people."
The big minus of the emirate's army is the lack of combat experience. The UAE army had limited participation in the Desert Storm operations and is now participating in the war in Yemen.
We briefly briefed you on the most interesting things about the United Arab Emirates, see the interesting details in our articles ( links below ).
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Is there a gold market in Sharjah or Ras al Jaime?
Alexander - GlavRed site
There is a place called "Gold Souk". This is a large market where jewelry is traded. It is located in Dubai, near the Ras metro station ("Ras").
Where to see the list of drugs banned for import in Russian. Our names are medicines, not active substances, I'm not a doctor. Thank you!
Alexander - GlavRed site
Governmental structures form and publish such lists. I even saw them. But only in these lists all drugs are imported, I did not even recognize one. So, it remains to be wonder.
In addition! It must be understood that it is not drugs that are imported, but substances - their components. It is necessary to look at the active substances in the preparation and even then to request the appropriate organs.