In the first part of this article, we talked about ancient Italy before the formation of the Roman Empire . The second part was devoted to the Roman Empire and Medieval Italy . In the final part, we will talk about the country in modern times and the modern Italian Republic.
In the 13-14 centuries, Italy was a lot of small states that, according to the structure of power and way of life, were very different from the rest of Europe. All of Europe at that time was feudal. The power belonged to the big feudal lords, who owned the land and serfs.
In Italian city-states, power belonged to traders, artisans and owners of manufactories.
The feudal lords were vitally dependent on the church, which was a key tool in maintaining order among serfs. The Italian city-republics from the church were almost independent, of course, almost everyone believed in the Almighty, but the church organizations did not have a strong influence on the Italians.
It was on this fertile soil that a revolution in culture and art took place, the "Renaissance" or "Renaissance" came. Subsequently, this cultural movement was intercepted and other European countries, this phenomenon was called the "Northern Renaissance".
The offensive of this era was greatly assisted by Turkey. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Ottoman Turks actively oppressed the Byzantines in Asia Minor, which led to the resettlement of many Greeks from there to Italy. It was the Greeks who brought here the works of ancient philosophers and works of ancient art, giving impetus to the beginning of a new era in the culture of Europe.
Italy becomes an advanced area, here the best architectural, literary and pictorial masterpieces are created. In this era in Italy worked Leonardo da Vinci, Rafael Santi and Michelangelo Buonarroti. ( note We are referring to the famous figures of the Renaissance, not the ninja turtles)
The most famous work of Leonardo da Vinci "Mona Lisa" in the photo on the left. You will not be able to see her during your visit to Italy, as the painting is in the Louvre in Paris.
But do not be discouraged, one more very sign of the fresco of the master "The Last Supper" you can see in Milan in the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Another three known works are in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. This "Annunciation", "The Baptism of Christ" and "Adoration of the Magi."
Michelangelo Buonarroti is famous for the fresco "Last Judgment" in the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. In Rome, you will have the opportunity to see it.
Rafael Santi is known for his Madonna, the most famous are "Madonna of Alba", "Madonna with fish" and "Madonna of Granduca". In the "Renaissance" were not only popular stories from ancient history, but also biblical stories, and the Virgin Mary, perhaps, appeared in the paintings of artists most often.
We hope that our small excursion will help the shaft to better navigate in painting in the museums and cathedrals of Italy.
Let's return directly to the Italian history. Until 1792 there were many independent states on the Apennine peninsula. The political map of Italy changed constantly, there were never-ending wars between these states, France, Spain, Austria and even England took part in some conflicts.
In 1792, French troops invaded Italy by the command of Napoleon Bonaparte. As a result of several wars, he conquered all of Italy.
The western part of the country became part of France, and the rest of the territory remained under the rule of several small states, but already completely dependent on Napoleon, the so-called "satellites."
For the first time, Italy became one, albeit under the rule of Napoleon.
Often, the Italian states could not pay the contribution of money, and Napoleon Bonaparte with pleasure took out pictures from Italy. It is he who the Louvre in Paris owes its rich collection of Italian painting.
At that moment, the idea of national unity of all Italy is born. The idea flourished, but the unification was difficult and the unified kingdom of Italy emerged only in 1870.
The most famous hero of the reunification of Italy is Giuseppe Garibaldi. The first time he joined the patriotic organization in 1933, and participated in almost all the uprisings and liberation wars in Italy.
Many guests of the city of Taganrog are surprised by the monument of Giuseppe Garibaldi in this city. Indeed, Taganrog is located far enough from Italy.
But this is not surprising, since Garibaldi was a sailor and captain of a merchant ship, and it was in Taganrog that he first vowed to fight for the independence of his country, and joined the patriotic organization "Young Italy".
In honor of Giuseppe Garibaldi, a street in Moscow is named.
During your trip to Italy you will see a lot of monuments to Giuseppe himself and his comrades. He is the main national hero of the country.
The young Italian kingdom lasted not so long in the world. Having united in 1870, already in 1914 Italy enters the First World War on the side of the Entente. King Victor Emmanuel III took an interesting position. At first he wanted to join the war with Germany and Austria-Hungary. But then he turned to the Entente side.
The war was not successful for the Italians, in the beginning the Italian troops suffered defeat. At the end of the war, things went better and, following the results of the First World War, several areas of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire retreated to Italy.
In 1922, the power in Italy comes to the charismatic leader Benito Mussolini, who was popularly called "Duce", which is translated from Italian as "leader."
Italy in the Second World War was an ally of the Third Reich. And Mussolini is often credited with many atrocities, associating him with his ally Adolf Hitler. Benito Mussolini was a sensible politician, he was loved by the people. He achieved for the Italians the main, improvement of the country's economy after the First World War.
The Second World War for Italy was not successful. His goal Mussolini saw dominance in the Mediterranean, dreaming about the same status of Italy as the Roman Empire had. Long-term hostilities against the British in northern Africa were unsuccessful.
The Italian troops also participated in the attack on the USSR, but they did not apply special diligence. Most of the Italian troops were defeated in early 1943. And in the same 1943 Benito Mussolini was removed from power. Italy for a while was under the occupation of German troops.
In 1946, in a referendum, the Italians voted to create the republic. It was the First Italian Republic, which existed until 1993.
In 1993, the Second Italian Republic was established, the system of choice of power was changing.
The Italian Republic was and still remains very politically unstable state. Silvio Berlusconi has been the head of state three times already, and probably every reader has heard about sex scandals related to him.
Italy is one of the first places in the frequency of government change in the 20th century. In many respects it is connected with the power system, because Italy is a parliamentary republic. The second problem of power in Italy is the extremely high corruption at all levels of government. Predict who will govern the country at the time of your visit to the country, we do not undertake.
Read our other articles about Italy at chinainfoguide.info ( links below ).