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Excavations of the city of Troy


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To be one of the heroes of ancient Greek myths, a character from the eternal works of Homer "Iliad" or "Odyssey" in our time is not difficult. A few formalities: passport, tour registration (if you follow the ticket) - and you, having collected the necessary amount for the trip, can safely go to Turkey, namely, in the province of Canakkale, on the peninsula of Troada off the coast of the Aegean Sea. Here, glorified by writers, poets and common people, there are fragments of an ancient settlement - Troy (also called Ilion, Dardania and Skamandra).

Troy is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has experienced many victories and defeats, ups and downs in its history for several thousand years. Whatever new archeologists have unearthed here, Troy will always remain a mystery, the unsolved mystery of the great city that has entered, and forever remained, in world history, culture, literature and art.

Nine variations of Troy, or the history of excavations of the famous city

Even in the cuneiform tablets of the Hittites of the Bogazkoy Archives, Troy, called the "Taruisha", is mentioned as a settlement of the sea people of the Turks, comparable often with the Teresh people (this name is found on the Merneptah stela). The scientists did not reach a consensus on this issue. There are versions of the name of the country of Troy and its capital - Ilion.

In 1822 Charles McClaren put forward a hypothesis about the similarity of the hill Gissarlyk with Troy, described by Homer. Frank Calvert supported his idea by starting excavation there. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann, seven years after Calvert, begins researching the second half of Gissarlik in the late 19th century. His excavations were crowned with success: he was found the so-called "Treasure of Priam".

Schliemann should share the treasure with the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul. However, the archaeologist secretly takes the treasure to Greece. Unsuccessful attempts to sell artifacts to one of the world's museums lead to Schliemann's transfer of treasures as a gift to Berlin in exchange for his honorable citizenship in the city. After the end of World War II, as a trophy, they find themselves in the USSR, for a long time stay in the cellars, and then in the 90s of the last century are transported to the Pushkin Museum. A.S. Pushkin.

To date, research scientists on Gissarlyk found traces of 9 fortress settlements of different eras. So far, 9 layers of Troy have been found:

Troy 0 or Kumtepe - Neolithic settlement.

The settlement of Troy I occupied a territory of 100 m in diameter and existed from 3000 to 2600 years. BC. There was also a fortress with walls, and gates, and towers of rough stone. The fire destroyed everything, having captured also buildings from clay bricks.

In Troy II, which existed from 2600 to 2300 BC, Schliemann found the "Trojan treasure" ("The Cloak of Priam", although scientists have proved that Schliemann's discovery is a thousand years older than the events described by Homer): weapons, parts ornaments, fragments of articles made of gold, copper, and grave-plates of prehistoric and early historical epochs. The fire also took this part of Troy, whose inhabitants were actively engaged in trade.

The next three layers, Troy III-IV-V, spoke of the decline of the city from 2300 to 1900 with their finds. BC.

The sixth Troy, which existed from 1900 to 1300. BC, occupied a territory of 200 meters in diameter and represented a royal palace-citadel. Fortress walls had a thickness of 4-5 meters. The earthquake contributed to the destruction of the policy in 1300 BC.

The Trojan War was held in Troy VII-A. It is this city, dating from 1300 - 1200 years. BC, plundered and destroyed by the Athenians.

The half-ruined Troy VII-B, which existed from 1200 to 900 gg. BC. was occupied by the Phrygians.

The Aleanic Greeks inhabited Troy VIII, (900-350 BC) Over a thousand head of cattle are sacrificed here by King Xerxes.

Troy IX was a large city from 350 BC. up to 400 AD. The temple of Athena, a sanctuary for sacrifices, is being built. Julius Caesar after coming to Troy in 48 BC. orders to expand the temple of Athena. When Augustus erected a council room (bowltertery), an odeon for musical performances.

The question of the language of the Trojans caused a lot of controversy among scientists: among others, the Phrygians, the Etruscan language, the Cretan letter were called. Already in the 21st century, scientists are inclined to assert that the official language in Troy was the Luvian language, this is confirmed by the discovery in the layer of the seventh Troy in 1995 of the seal with hieroglyphics of the Luvians.

The state of the Trojans was multinational: the Trojan War contributed to the migration of the population.

The ruins of Troy are located on 165 sq.m, which is 10 times less, according to scientists, the city itself.

The historical park is still in the excavation stage: on the territory you can see "homeless" columns of marble, other fragments of ancient buildings.

Troy today

Today this city (what is left of it), scorched by the rays of the sun, blown by the winds, is a world-famous archaeological museum. The remains of the city now rise to dry terrain.

Without a guide, wandering through the ruins is uninteresting and does not make sense, because most of the stones tourists themselves can not "decipher". And time preserved for us in the famous Three fragments of the eastern wall and gate, the stairs of the citadel, partially restored Megaron, the majestic temple of Athena, the mysterious sanctuaries of Cybele and Demeter with a tribune and altar, an impressive hall for concerts of the Odeon, as well as the ancient houses of the rich and famous Trojans.

The mock-up of the Trojan horse, only wooden, attracts tourists the most. We will have to stand a long line, everyone wants to experience on themselves. albeit approximate, sensations of the ancient Greek hero, hitting the horse inside.

The excavation museum is waiting for curious tourists who want to know the stages of research on the hill, with mock-ups, a lot of photos. Opposite the museum is the Pithos garden, on which the water pipes of that time and pots of clay are scattered. For visitors, foot paths and places for rest are trampled.

In Canakkale a sufficient number of hotels, there is a hotel and opposite the complex: there will be no problems with accommodation.

The historical park

The National Historical Park of Troy is available for visits every day from 8 am to 7 pm (May-September), and until 5 pm the working hours from October to April are reduced. Entrance costs (the price is specified for 2016) 20 lir.

We choose the road and transport

Travel by car will be less tiring and not as long as a bus. You can get to Troy by following the Chanakkale-Izmir highway. Carefully follow the road signs pointing to the road to the ancient city. From Canakkale to Troy, only 30 km.

Intercity bus should be every hour, the journey lasts about half an hour, costs 3 Turkish lira. By taxi for the same route you will be taken from 55 lire. Check with the driver for the time of flights.

From Istanbul to Canakkale go about 6-7 hours: the bus goes three times a day, departing from the bus station, which is near the metro station "Otogar".

There is a bus service between Canakkale and Bursa, Izmir. As an option, but more expensive, - air travel from Istanbul and Izmir, and the center of Canakkale will have to overcome only 3 km. From the center buses to Troy go every hour.

A trip to the ancient city will be a great journey, adding to your stories about the wanderings proud and enviable to many people: "I was in the Three!"



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